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- the Ecological Society of America (ESA) is a nonpartisan, nonprofit organization of scientists founded in 1915 to: promote ecological science by improving communication among ecologists; raise the public's level of awareness of the importance of ecological science; increase the resources available for the conduct of ecological science; and ensure the appropriate use of ecological science in environmental decision making by enhancing communication between the ecological community and policy-makers.
- the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) was founded in 1848 to "advance science and innovation throughout the world for the benefit of all people" through initiatives in: science policy, international programs, science education and science techonology.